the chickens have been given a brain lesion . Thankfully, the field has moved forwards since then.
In the years since, researchers have understood more and more about how and when we experience, perceive, and respond to a variety of flavors. They have found that infants as young as 2 days old show a preference for sugar (as revealed by frontal asymmetry and facial expressions) , how our taste buds grow old leading to a preference for sour, salt, and bitter , and how calcium can enhance certain flavors .
While these might be interesting findings, what do they really tell us? There are reasons beyond just wanting to create the perfect meal (although this is part of research as well ). For example, the way in which taste is experienced has been linked to several eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia , as well as to obesity .
Beyond the critical importance of understanding more about the role of taste in health and disease, there are broader questions about human behavior that can be interrogated through the lens of taste research. For example, how are our preferences created? How can people perceive the same tastes in different ways? How do we learn how things taste, and how does this affect other tastes?
Below we will go through some of the research that attempts to answer these questions. But first we’ll explore what exactly taste is.
The Science of Taste
Taste is the result of substances landing on the receptors of the tongue which activate receptor signalling. One of the breakthrough moments for the science of flavor was the discovery of the five different basic taste receptors  – sweet, sour, bitter, salt, umami (umami is also often referred to as “savory”). Recently there has also been research suggesting additional receptors, for the taste of water, and for the flavor of fat .
A common misconception is that each of these tastes resides in specific areas of the tongue – a concept that has since been disproven (although there is evidence that there are regional sensitivities for certain tastes).
In addition to these six tastes, there are other factors that affect how we experience flavors. There are aspects such as the mouthfeel (a real technical term), kokumi (the feeling that a food has continuity, mouthfulness and thickness), as well as the smell, shape, colors, and even sounds associated with the experience.
For example, researchers have found that the noisier an environment is, the less sweet food is perceived to be. The opposite is found for the umami taste – the louder the sound, the more intense the flavor of savoriness becomes . This might go some way to explaining why tomato juice is so popular on airplane flights, and not back on the ground.
A similar phenomena is found with color, with an increased intensity of food color being associated with increased taste intensity . Studies have also shown how the presence or increased intensity of green colors can increase sensitivity to sour tastes, while red lowers our guard for bitterness. Yellow colors can make us more sensitive to both sweetness and sourness .
That color would impact taste perhaps comes as no particular surprise – visual cues have a powerful influence on how we perceive the world. Does this influence extend to other factors though?
Researchers showed both hungry and non-hungry participants differing menus at a restaurant, and measured their responses with eye tracking using iMotions. They manipulated how the calorie information appeared – how it differed relative to other meals, or the salience of the information. They found that the low calorie option was more likely to be chosen when the difference or salience of the information was greater – and if the participants paid more attention . This has implications for how menus should be formatted – if the goal is to promote low-calorie eating.
Researchers have explored these perceptual influences in even more nuanced ways. For example, by using brain imaging (in this case, electroencephalography, or EEG) as well as measures of electrodermal activity (EDA)and pupillometry, it’s possible to look at the nonconscious reactions to foods that are otherwise imperceptibly different.
As Camilla Arndal Andersen explains in her TED talk below, participants might only correctly report the difference between sugar and sweetener 50% of the time (no better than chance), but that these measures show that we nonconsciously react to the difference. Dr. Andersen hopes that these measures mean that: “we are going to be able to create tastier foods, because we can measure whether people actually like that sugar-reduced milkshake“.
Emotions and Tastes
The perceptual influences on taste are myriad, but that’s not the full picture – taste is also impacted by our memories, expectations, and mood . Researchers have found that increasing serotonin levels (a neurotransmitter in which moderate increases are associated with elevated mood) in participants increases sensitivity to sweet and bitter tastes, while application of noradrenaline (a neurotransmitter also associated with elevated in mood in moderate amounts) also led to a higher sensitivity to bitter and sour tastes .
Researchers (using iMotions) have also found that the outward display of emotion is associated with our taste preferences – at least when it comes to vegetable juice . Participants had their facial expressions measured throughout the experience of tasting – from seeing, smelling, and drinking the juice. It was found that different emotional expressions (disgusted, satisfied, bored, etc) were significant predictors of how much the participants reported liking the juice. It was also found that electrodermal activity (EDA) was a significant predictor of how much the aroma of the juice was appreciated. The results suggest that these methods can help corroborate explicit reports – helpful for correcting for factors such as participants bias.
The same researchers, in a different study but also using iMotions, also found that taste is not only modulated by outward mood – but also by personality type. They used facial expression analysis, EDA, and electrocardiography (ECG) measures to account for both emotional expressions and physiological arousal, and combined these results with the data from personality tests. They found that data about emotional expressions and personality types was able to significantly predict taste preference – suggesting that food producers might want to think about who they want their food to appeal to, and cater the tastes around that .
Taste and Psychiatric Disorders
Beyond taste for pleasure, there are also links between the perception of flavor and psychiatric disorders. Researchers have found that on a population level, changes in taste are linked to the prevalence of depression . Other research has found an increased disgust response for people with borderline personality disorder .
The exact link between psychiatric disorders and gustatory changes is still debated, with a range of potential factors involved .
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often presents with sensory abnormalities , and a large proportion of people with autism also have some form of eating disorder . Researchers have explored using repeated exposures of food to help children with autism develop wider taste preferences. By measuring facial expressions with iMotions (a method particularly suited in this study due to its non-invasive nature), the researchers were able to gather data related to emotional expressions in response to repeated exposure to certain foods .
The researchers found that the positive displays of emotion increased when responding to aromas that were previously presented to the participants – suggesting that repeated exposures increases the adjustment and enjoyment of food aroma for autistic children. These findings suggest that helping
autistic children overcome selectivity (defined as the consumption of a limited number of foods, and the most common symptom of autistic children; [23, 24]), could be as simple as presenting the same foods again and again.
There are a lot of factors that contribute to the sense of taste. Although often deemed less important than our other primary senses – sight, sound, touch, smell – it is clear that taste is both complex and critical to how we experience the world. As research continues to progress, one thing is certain – we can expect tasty results.
 Fox, N., & Davidson, R. (1986). Taste-elicited changes in facial signs of emotion and the asymmetry of brain electrical activity in human newborns. Neuropsychologia, 24(3), 417-422. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(86)90028-x
 Shin, Y., Cong, W., Cai, H., Kim, W., Maudsley, S., Egan, J., & Martin, B. (2011). Age-Related Changes in Mouse Taste Bud Morphology, Hormone Expression, and Taste Responsivity. The Journals Of Gerontology: Series A, 67A(4), 336-344. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glr192
 Kuroda, M., & Miyamura, N. (2015). Mechanism of the perception of “kokumi” substances and the sensory characteristics of the “kokumi” peptide, γ-Glu-Val-Gly. Flavour, 4(1). doi: 10.1186/2044-7248-4-11
 Mouritsen, O., Duelund, L., Bagatolli, L., & Khandelia, H. (2013). The name of deliciousness and the gastrophysics behind it. Flavour, 2(1). doi: 10.1186/2044-7248-2-9
 Frank, G., Shott, M., Hagman, J., & Mittal, V. (2013). Alterations in Brain Structures Related to Taste Reward Circuitry in Ill and Recovered Anorexia Nervosa and in Bulimia Nervosa. American Journal Of Psychiatry, 170(10), 1152-1160. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12101294
 Salbe, A., DelParigi, A., Pratley, R., Drewnowski, A., & Tataranni, P. (2004). Taste preferences and body weight changes in an obesity-prone population. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 79(3), 372-378. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/79.3.372
 Lindemann, B. (1996). Taste reception. Physiological Reviews, 76(3), 719-766. doi: 10.1152/physrev.19220.127.116.119
 Laugerette, F., Passilly-Degrace, P., Patris, B., Niot, I., Febbraio, M., Montmayeur, J., & Besnard, P. (2005). CD36 involvement in orosensory detection of dietary lipids, spontaneous fat preference, and digestive secretions. Journal Of Clinical Investigation, 115(11), 3177-3184. doi: 10.1172/jci25299
 Yan, K., & Dando, R. (2015). A crossmodal role for audition in taste perception. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception And Performance, 41(3), 590-596. doi: 10.1037/xhp0000044
 Scotter, M. (2015). Colour additives for foods and beverages. Woodhead Publishing.
 Maga, J. (1974). Influence of Color on Taste Thresholds. Chemical Senses, 1(1), 115-119. doi: 10.1093/chemse/1.1.115
 Huseynov, S. Palma, M. A., Ahmad. G. (2019). Does the magnitude of relative calorie distance affect food consumption?
 Miranda, M. (2012). Taste and odor recognition memory: the emotional flavor of life. Reviews In The Neurosciences, 23(5-6). doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2012-0064
 Heath, T., Melichar, J., Nutt, D., & Donaldson, L. (2006). Human Taste Thresholds Are Modulated by Serotonin and Noradrenaline. Journal Of Neuroscience, 26(49), 12664-12671. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci.3459-06.2006
 Samant, S., & Seo, H. (2019). Using both emotional responses and sensory attribute intensities to predict consumer liking and preference toward vegetable juice products. Food Quality And Preference, 73, 75-85. doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.12.006
 Samant, S., & Seo, H. (2018). Personality traits affect the influences of intensity perception and emotional responses on hedonic rating and preference rank toward basic taste solutions. Journal Of Neuroscience Research, 97(3), 276-291. doi: 10.1002/jnr.24321
 Hur, K., Choi, J., Zheng, M., Shen, J., & Wrobel, B. (2018). Association of alterations in smell and taste with depression in older adults. Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, 3(2), 94-99. doi: 10.1002/lio2.142
 Arrondo, G., Murray, G., Hill, E., Szalma, B., Yathiraj, K., Denman, C., & Dudas, R. (2015). Hedonic and disgust taste perception in borderline personality disorder and depression. British Journal Of Psychiatry, 207(1), 79-80. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.150433
 Heckmann, J., Heckmann, S., Lang, C., & Hummel, T. (2003). Neurological Aspects of Taste Disorders. Archives Of Neurology, 60(5), 667. doi: 10.1001/archneur.60.5.667
 Luisier, A., Petitpierre, G., Clerc Bérod, A., Garcia-Burgos, D., & Bensafi, M. (2018). Effects of familiarization on odor hedonic responses and food choices in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 23(6), 1460-1471. doi: 10.1177/1362361318815252
 Nadon G, Feldman DE and Gisel E (2013) Feeding issues associated with the autism spectrum disorders. In: Fitzgerald M (ed.) Recent Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorders, vol. 1. Rijeka: InTech, pp.597–630
 Cermak SA, Curtin C and Bandini LG (2014) Sensory sensitivity and food selectivity in children with autism spectrum disorder. In: Patel VB, Preedy VR and Colin MR (eds) Comprehensive Guide to Autism. New York: Springer Science + Business Media, pp.2061–2076.
 Rastam M and Wentz E (2014) ASD, eating problems, and overlap with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. In: Patel VB, Preedy VR and Martin CR (eds) Comprehensive Guide to Autism. Cham: Springer, pp.2015–203
The symptoms we feel when we experience anxiety: heart racing, hard to breathe.
Mother Nature and Anxiety – Solid advice, and as often is the case, ‘“Mother knows best!”
From our caveman days we were more successful in cooperative packs. Families and allies, banded together